Open Source Intelligence and Cultural Property Crimes

  • Francisco José Rufián Fernández Policía Municipal Madrid
  • Agustín José Constante Orrios
Keywords: OSINT, cultural property, heritage, illicit trafficking, law enforcement, training


There is a vast dark market focused on the antiquities trade, the main character of which, when compared to other illicit businesses, is its capacity to intermix with the legal market. This leads to a significant increase in difficulty during investigations. We must also add to this the fact that digital tools have changed our way of life and the manner in which business is conducted, and people undertaking criminal activities have not been left out of this. In this regard, law enforcement agencies need to develop scientific knowledge and IT capacities, in cooperation with academics and society, in order to face the continuous challenges in this field.
OSINT techniques are some of the most valuable tools in this regard, such as carrying out provenance investigations, which are crucial to identifying and proving the illicit origin of any object. This presentation aims to provide a succinct overview of the issue to foster the development of new academic research and investigations within the field.

How to Cite
Rufián Fernández, F., & Constante Orrios, A. J. (2022). Open Source Intelligence and Cultural Property Crimes. European Law Enforcement Research Bulletin, (6), 135-140. Retrieved from
Conference Contribution